Continuous HIV-1 Escape from Autologous Neutralization and Development of Cross-Reactive Antibody Responses Characterizes Slow Disease Progression of Children
Kinetics of the autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody (Nab) responses, in addition to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), in HIV-1 infected children with different disease progression rates followed from close after birth and five years on. Autologous and heterologous neutralization were determined by Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)- and TZMbl-based assays, and ADCC was assessed with the GranToxiLux assay. Nabs directed against the transmitted virus developed usually within 12 months of age in children with slow progression, but rarely in rapid progressors. Autologous Nabs persisted throughout the follow-up of the slow progressors and induced a continuous emergence of escape variants. Persistent autologous Nabs triggering viral escape and an increase in the breadth and potency of cross-Nabs are exclusive to HIV-1 infected slowly progressing children. Titers of antibodies mediating ADCC to gp120 BaL pulsed target cells increased in slow progressors during follow-up. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9030260.